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Diary of Anne Frank The Book

Diary of Anne Frank The Book

Diary of Anne Frank The Book

Diary of Anne Frank The Book

diary young girl Anne Frank

The diary Anne Frank got for her birthday.

Diary of Anne Frank The Book is about Annelies MarieAnneFrank who was born in Germany on the 12th of June 1929 and died in the month of February or March of 1945. She was one of the most talked about Jewish victims of the Holocaust and became famous after her death because her “The Diary of a Young Girl (originally published as Het Achterhuis; English: The Secret Annex)”, was published. In the diary, she wrote about how she survived in hiding from 1942 to 1944, when the Germans occupied the Netherlands during the Second World War. It is one of the most famous books in the world and a lot of plays and movies have been based on it.

Anne Frank TimelineAnne was born in Frankfurt, Germany and she spent most of her life in Amsterdam, Netherlands and its environs where her family moved to when the Nazis took over Germany when she was four and a half years old. Though she was born German, in 1941 she lost her citizenship making her a stateless person. The Franks got trapped in Amsterdam in May 1940 when the Germans occupied Netherlands. As the Germans continued to prosecute the Jews, in July 1942, her family decided to hide in some concealed rooms at the back of a bookcase located in the building where her father worked. From that date, till the time they were arrested in August 1944 by the Gestapo, Anne wrote in a diary which was given to her as a birthday gift. After their arrest, her family was taken into concentration camps. Anne and Margot her sister, were later transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in October or November 1944, where they died a couple of months later.  Initially, the Red Cross estimated their date of death to be March, so Dutch authorities put March 31 as their official date of death, but in 2015, the Anne Frank House released reports of some research carried out by them, which revealed that, their date of death was likely in February.Anne Frank

Otto, Anne’s father, who was their family’s only survivor, went back to Amsterdam after the war, and discovered that Miep Gies, who was one of their helpers managed to save her diary, and because of his efforts, it was published in 1947. In 1952 it was published for the first time in the English language and translated from its Dutch version as “The Diary of a Young Girl” and since then, it has been translated into more than 60 languages.

Diary of Anne Frank The Book

You can buy a copy of the diary of a young girl, Anne Frank here:

The Diary of a Young GirlThe Diary of a Young GirlThe Diary of a Young GirlThe Diary of a Young Girl

Early life

diary young girl anne frank

The block of apartments on the Merwedeplein which was the residence of the Franks between 1934 and 1942

She was born in Frankfurt, Germany as Annelies Marie Frank to Otto Heinrich Frank and Edith (née Holländer). She had an elder sister known as Margot. She came from a family of liberal Jews who never bothered to observe every custom and tradition associated with Judaism. They lived in a community that comprised of Jews and non-Jews of different religious backgrounds. Edith was the devout one amongst her parents. While Otto’s interest was more about scholarly pursuits and he had a very extensive library; their parents encouraged their daughters to read. When Anne was born, her family lived in a rented house at Marbachweg 307. The family later moved to Ganghoferstrasse 24 in 1931, to a more liberal and fashionable area known as Dichterviertel (Poets’ Quarter). The two houses are still in existence till date.

After Hitler’s Nazi Party emerged victorious at the federal election in 1933, Edith Frank took the children to stay with Rosa, her mother, in Aachen. Otto Frank stayed behind in Frankfurt, but when he got an offer to start up a company in Amsterdam, he relocated there in order to make preparations and secure accommodations for the family. He started working at Opekta Works, which was a company involved in the selling of fruit extract pectin. He later discovered an apartment in the Merwedeplein (Merwede Square) in Amsterdam’s Rivierenbuurt neighborhood. Edith and the girls joined Frank in Amsterdam in February 1934. The Franks where part of the 300 Jews that escaped from Germany between the year 1933 and 1939.

Anne and her sister Margot where enrolled in different schools when they moved to Amsterdam – Margot was enrolled into a public school and Anne was enrolled into a Montessori school. Margot was good in arithmetic, while Anne was good at reading and writing. Hanneli Goslar, Anne’s childhood friend, later recalled that she used to write frequently, although she never allowed anyone to see her work and she refused to discuss her writing.

Anne’s father started another company called Pectacon, in 1938. It involved the wholesale of herbs, mixed spices, and pickling salts used for sausage production. Pectacon employed Hermann van Pels to advise them about spices. He was a Jewish butcher who escaped from Osnabrück with his family. Edith’s mother moved in with the Franks in 1939, where she remained until she died in January 1942.

Germany invaded the Netherlands in May 1940, after which they started persecuting Jews by implementing discriminatory and restrictive laws like compulsory registration, and soon segregation followed. Otto Frank tried to organize the emigration of his family to the United States, which seemed like a viable solution to him at that time, but it did not work out because the American government started having concerns about people with close relatives in Germany being blackmailed into becoming spies for the Nazis. Though the Frank girls were excelling in school, there was a decree that forced Jews to only attend Jewish schools, so they had to transfer to the Jewish Lyceum. At the Lyceum, Anne met and became friends with Jacqueline van Maarsen. Otto took steps in April 1941 to prevent the confiscation of Pectacon as a Jewish business. He transferred his personal shares in the company to Johannes Kleiman and stepped down as director. The company was then liquidated and its assets were transferred to Gies and Company, which was controlled by Jan Gies. In December of the same year, Otto did the same thing to save Opekta. The business continued to thrive despite the change and this allowed Otto to earn a little income which was sufficient to take care of his family.

The chronicle of time in the diary

Before hiding

On the 12th of June 1942, which was  her thirteenth birthday, Anne received a book that she had earlier shown her father through a shop window. Despite the fact that it was actually an autograph book that was covered with a red and white patterned cloth with a little lock in front Anne decided to turn it into a diary and started writing in it immediately. Her 20th of June 1942 entry contained a lot about the restrictions placed on the Jewish population of Netherland.

Anne’s parents had plans to take their children into hiding on the 16th of July 1942, but the Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung (Central Office for Jewish Emigration) sent Margot a call-up notice on the 5th of July, with an order for her to report at a work camp for relocation, which made them shift the plan ten days forward. Before they went into hiding, Anne gave Toosje Kupers, who was her neighbor and friend, a book, a tin of marbles, a tea set, and their family cat for her to safeguard. According to the Associated Press: Kuppers informed Anne that “‘I’m worried about my marbles, because I’m scared they might fall into the wrong hands, Could you keep them for me for a little while?'”

Living in the Achterhuis

The bookcase that was used to block the entrance that led to the Secret Annex, located in the Anne Frank House in the city of Amsterdam

On the 6th of July 1942, on a Monday morning, the Frank family migrated to their place of hiding, which was a three-story space that could be assessed from a landing that was directly above the Opekta offices located on Prinsengracht, where a few of his most trustworthy employees were to serve as their helpers. This hiding place was later referred to as the Achterhuis (which is interpreted as “Secret Annex” in the English versions of the diary). They left their apartment looking disarrayed to make it look like they left abruptly, and Otto also left a note behind hinting that they had gone to Switzerland. Because of the need for secrecy, they had to leave Anne’s cat Moortje behind. Because Jews were not permitted to make use of public transport, they had to walk for several kilometres away from their home. They later used a bookcase to cover the door leading to the Achterhuis to conceal it.

The only employees who knew that they were hiding were Miep Gies, Victor Kugler, Bep Voskuijl, and Johannes Kleiman. Together with Jan Gies Gies’ husband and Johannes Hendrik Voskuijl, Voskuijl’s father, they served as their helpers during their period of confinement. They were the only connection the occupants of the house had with the outside world, and they kept them informed about news of the war and the latest political developments. They took care of all their needs, guaranteeing their safety, and also provided food for them, which became more difficult as time went on. Anne wrote about their devotion as well as their attempts to boost their morale even when the war was at its worst. They were all aware that they were risking the death penalty by providing shelter for Jews.

The house (left) at the Prinsengracht in Amsterdam

The Anne Frank House in Amsterdam

A model of Anne Frank house

Model od Anne Frank house

Model of Anne Frank house

On the 13th of July 1942, the family of the van Pels joined the Franks in hiding: comprising of Auguste, Herman, and 16 year old Peter, and later in November Fritz Pfeffer, a family friend who was a dentist also joined them. Anne wrote of how happy she was to have new faces, but with time, tension developed between them. She shared a room with Pfeffer and she resented this intrusion and found him insufferable, she also had clashes with Auguste van Pels, and felt he was foolish. She regarded the both of them as selfish, especially when it came to the quantity of food they ate. After a while, her feelings for Peter van Pels who was shy and awkward underwent a radical change and she eventually began a romantic relationship with him. He was her first kiss, but after a while her infatuation with him reduced as she started to doubt her feelings and wondered if they were real or a result of their being confined  in one space. She also had a close bond with all their helpers, and her father later recalled that she used to anticipate their visits everyday with great enthusiasm. He stated that Anne’s closest friendship was with Bep Voskuijl, and that “the young typist … the two of them often stood whispering in the corner.”

The young diarist

In her memoir, Anne examined the relationship she had with each member of her family, and their unique personalities. She felt emotionally closer to her father, who later remarked that, “I got on better with Anne than with Margot, who was more attached to her mother. The reason for that may have been that Margot didn’t show her feelings so much and didn’t need as much support because she didn’t suffer from mood swings as much as Anne did.” The sisters became very close after they went into hiding, though Anne sometimes felt envious of Margot, especially when she was criticized by members of the household for not having Margot’s placid and gentle nature. But as they became more mature, the sisters learned to confide in one another. Anne wrote in her January 12 1944 entry that, “Margot’s much nicer … She’s not nearly so catty these days and is becoming a real friend. She no longer thinks of me as a little baby who doesn’t count.”

Anne Frank House from Westerkirk

As seen from Westerkerk in 2004, the Secret Annex which had light-coloured walls, with orange roof (below), along with the Anne Frank tree at the garden at the back of the house (lower right)

Anne constantly wrote about her relationship with her mother, which was difficult at best. In her memoir of November 7 1942, she wrote about her “contempt” of her mother and how she was unable to “confront her with her carelessness, her sarcasm and her hard-heartedness,” she ended by concluding that, “She’s not a mother to me.” in a later reversal Anne was ashamed of her attitude, which prompted her to write: “Anne, is it really you who mentioned hate, oh Anne, how could you?” with time, she understood that they both shared the blame for their disagreements, and she realized that she needlessly compounded her mother’s suffering. With this new found wisdom, Anne began to treat her mother with more respect and tolerance.

The sisters had hopes of returning back to school as soon as possible, so they continued to study despite their situation. Margot registered for a shorthand course through correspondence using Bep Voskuijl’s name and was awarded high marks. Anne spent her time studying and reading, and she wrote and edited her diary on a regular basis. Apart from narrating the events happening, she also wrote down her feelings, ambitions, beliefs, as well as topics she was unable to discuss with other people. As she became more mature, her confidence grew, and she began to write about abstract subjects like her belief in God, as well as her definition of human nature.

Anne dreamed of becoming a journalist, her April 5, 1944 journal entry stated:

“I finally realized that I must do my schoolwork to keep from being ignorant, to get on in life, to become a journalist, because that’s what I want! I know I can write …, but it remains to be seen whether I really have talent …

And if I don’t have the talent to write books or newspaper articles, I can always write for myself. But I want to achieve more than that. I can’t imagine living like Mother, Mrs. van Daan and all the women who go about their work and are then forgotten. I need to have something besides a husband and children to devote myself to! …

I want to be useful or bring enjoyment to all people, even those I’ve never met. I want to go on living even after my death! And that’s why I’m so grateful to God for having given me this gift, which I can use to develop myself and to express all that’s inside me!

When I write I can shake off all my cares. My sorrow disappears, my spirits are revived! But, and that’s a big question, will I ever be able to write something great, will I ever become a journalist or a writer?”

— Anne Frank

Anne continued to write in her journal regularly until August 1 1944, when she made her last entry.

The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank

Arrest

Last & months of Anne's life

At daybreak on August 4th 1944, a group of uniformed German police (Grüne Polizei) stormed the Achterhuis under the leadership of the Sicherheitsdienst’s SS-Oberscharfuhrer Karl Silberbauer. The Franks, Pfeffer, and van Pelses were taken down to the RSHA headquarters, and they were subjected to serious interrogation and detained overnight. On August 4, they were taken to the Huis van Bewaring (aka House of Detention), which was an overcrowded prison located on the Weteringschans. After two days, they were taken to Westerbork transit camp, which more than 100,000 Jews mainly Germans and Dutch, had passed through. Because they were discovered in hiding, they were regarded as criminals and were made to undergo hard labor at the Punishment Barracks.

Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler were both arrested and put in jail at the penal camp, located at Amersfoort which was built for enemies of the regime. After seven weeks, Kleiman was released, but Kugler was put in different work camps until the end of the war. The Security Police threatened and questioned Bep Voskuijl and Miep Gies but did not detain them. They went back to Achterhuis, the next day, and discovered Anne’s’ papers all over the floor. They picked them up along with some family photo albums, and Gies vowed to give them back to Anne at the end of the war. Gies tried to facilitate the prisoner’s release on the 7th of august 1944 by confronting Silberbauer and even offered to pay for his intervention, but he declined.

Although there have been talks about an informant who betrayed them, nobody has been able to identify how the authorities got the information to raid the Achterhuis. Martin Sleegers, a night watchman and an unidentified police officer, carried out an investigation about a burglary that occurred within the premises in April 1944, where they located the bookcase that was used to conceal the door. Tonny Ahlers, who was a member of the Nationalist Socialist Movement, located in the Netherlands (NSB), was the person suspected of being the informant by Carol Ann Lee, who was Otto Frank’s biographer. Willem van Maaren, stockroom manager, was also another suspect. The occupants of the annex distrusted him, as he appeared overly inquisitive about the people going into the stockroom at after hours. There was a time he asked the employees out of the blue if a Mr. Frank used to work at the office. Melissa Muller, Anne Frank’s biographer, suspected Lena Hartog of being the informant. Many of these suspects where familiar with each other and it is possible that they worked together. Although, everyone who had a connection to the betrayal was questioned after the war, they were unable to identify anybody as the informant.

In 2015, Jeroen de Bruyn a Flemish journalist, and Bep Voskuijl’s youngest son, Joop van Wijk, wrote a biography, Bep Voskuijl, het zwijgen voorbij: een biografie van de jongste helper van het Achterhuis (Bep Voskuijl, the Silence is Over: A Biography of the Youngest Helper of the Secret Annex), where they made allegations that Nelly (1923–2001), Bep’s younger sister might have betrayed the Franks. According to what they wrote, Diny, Bep’s sister, along with Bertus Hulsman, her fiancé recollected that Nelly phoned Gestapo in the morning on the 4th of August 1944. Nelly had criticized their father, Johannes Voskuijl, and Bep, for helping the Jews. (Johannes was responsible for constructing the bookcase that covered the entrance of their hiding place). Between 1942 and 1946, Nelly collaborated with the Nazis. Karl Silberbauer, who was the SS officer that received the phone call and affected the arrest, was recorded saying that the voice of the informer was that of a young woman.

In 2016, a new research to the effect that investigation about ration card fraud, of betrayal being the cause of the raid which resulted in the Frank’s arrest was published by the Anne Frank House. According to that report, it is possible that other activities in the building, including that of Frank’s company, might have led the authorities there. This however, does not completely rule out betrayal.

You can find more about Anne’s last seven months here:

The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank by Willy Lindwer (2000-05-26)The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank by Willy Lindwer (2000-05-26)The Last Seven Months of Anne FrankThe Last Seven Months of Anne Frank

Deportation and death

On the 3rd of September, 1944, they deported their group on what turned out to be the final transport from Westerbork, down to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they arrived after journeying for three days. Bloeme Evers-Emdem, a native of Amsterdam who befriended Anne and Margot in 1941 while they were at the Jewish Lyceum, was also on the train. Bloeme had regular interactions with the Frank women while in Auschwitz, and later gave interviews about her last memories of the women while they were in a TV documentary titled “The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank,” which was produced in 1988 by Willy Lindwer, a Dutch filmmaker, as well as “Anne Frank Remembered”, the 1995 BBC documentary.

When they arrived at Auchwitz, the men were forcefully separated from the women and children, so Otto Frank was separated from his family. Those they felt were fit enough to work, were let into the camp, and those whom they decided were unfit for work, were killed immediately. 549 of the 1,019 passengers including children below the age of 15 were immediately sent to the gas chambers. Anne Frank, who just turned 15, was one of the first set of people to be saved from her transport. She soon discovered that many people were gassed as soon as they arrived and she did not know if people from Achterhuis survived this selection. She felt her father must have been killed upon their separation because he was in his mid-fifties and wasn’t particularly robust.

Along with the other females that escaped immediate death, Anne was made to strip naked in other to be disinfected, her hair was shaved, and an identifying number was tattooed on her arm. The women were used for slave labor and forced to dig rolls of sod and haul rocks in the day time, and jam-packed inside overcrowded barracks at night. According to some witnesses, Anne became tearful and withdrawn each time she witnessed children being taken to die in the gas chambers; and some others reported that she often demonstrated courage and strength. Because of her confident and outgoing nature, she was able to acquire extra rations of bread for herself, her mother and her sister. There were lots of diseases, and in a little while her skin was infected by scabies. Anne and her sister were transferred to the infirmary which was laden with rats and in a perpetual state of darkness. Their mother stopped eating her food, saving everything which she passed to her daughters through a hole she dug at the bottom of the wall of the infirmary.

Anne and Margot Frank’s memorial

Anne and Margot Frank’s memorial at the old Bergen-Belsen site, with flower and picture tributes

By October 1944, Anne, her sister and her mother, were scheduled to join a transport going to the the Liebau labour camp, which was located in the Upper Silesia. Bloem Evers-Emdem was to go with them also; however, Anne was prevented from going because she had scabies, so her mother and sister decided to stay behind with her. Bloeme, went ahead without them.

On the 28th of October, they began selecting women that would be moved to Bergen-Belsen. Not less than 8,000 women, which included Anne, Margot, and Auguste van Pels, were transported. Edith Frank was not transported and she later died as a result of starvation. They erected tents at Bergen-Belsen to accommodate the new prisoners, and with the increase in population, there was also an increase in death-toll because of different diseases. According to reports, Anne was able to unite with two of her old friends, Nanette Blitz and Hanneli Goslar, who were locked up in another part of the camp. Blitz and Goslar survived the war, and were later able to describe the brief interactions they had with Anne across the fence. According to Blitz, Anne was emaciated, bald and shivering badly. Goslar stated that Auguste van Pels was with Margot and Anne and that she took care of Margot, who was seriously ill. Neither of them had any form of interaction with Margot because she was not strong enough to even leave her bunk. Anne informed Goslar and Blitz that she believed her parents had died and for that she had no will to live again. According to Goslar, their meetings occurred between late January and early February 1945.

Early in 1945, there was a typhus epidemic across the camp, and it killed about 17,000 prisoners. Typhoid fever and some other diseases were very rampant. Because of all these chaotic conditions, we cannot say for certain what the cause of Anne’s death was. According to witnesses, Margot fell down from her bunk because of how weak she was, and died from the shock. Anne died some days after. There are no records of the exact dates Anne and Margot died. The consensus was that they died some weeks before the camp was liberated by British soldiers on the 15th of April 1945, but according to a new 2015 research, they may have died in February of the same year. In addition to some other evidences, witnesses remembered that the Frank sisters started displaying symptoms of Typhus as at February 7 and according to the Dutch authorities, majority of the victims of untreated typhus died within 12 days of displaying their first symptoms. The camp was burned down after the people were freed in a bid to prevent the further spread of the disease; they buried the sisters were given a mass burial at an unidentified location.

According to reports after the war, only an estimated 5,000 out of the 107,000 Jews that left the Netherlands between 1942, and 1944, were alive. Approximately 30,000 Jews stayed behind in the Netherlands, and a lot of them were helped by the Dutch underground. About two-thirds of the members of this group lived to see the end of the war.

Otto Frank survived his own captivity in Auschwitz. At the end of the war, he went back to Amsterdam, where Jan and Miep Gies gave him shelter while he tried to find his family. He discovered his wife had died in Auschwitz, but maintained hope that his daughters survived. A few weeks later, he learned of the death of his daughters. He tried to find out what happened to his daughter’s friends and discovered that majority of them had been killed. Sanne Ledermann, whom Anne often talked about in her diary, was gassed together with her parents, while Barbara her sister, who was a close friend of Margot’s survived. A lot of Margot and Anne’s school friends survived, as well as Otto and Edith Frank’s extended families who had fled from Germany in the mid 1930’s, settling in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and the United States.

The Diary of a Young Girl

Publication

Het Achterhuis, which was the first Dutch version of Anne Frank’s diary, was published in 1947, and was later translated to English language and renamed The Diary of a Young Girl

 

After the Frank sisters were confirmed dead in July1945, Miep Gies gave her father the diary and some loose notes she had kept in hopes of giving them back to Anne. Later, Otto Frank commented that he had no idea that his daughter had kept such a well-written and accurate record of the time they spent in hiding. He talked about how painful it was to read it in his memoir, how his memories of some of the events came flashing back and how he remembered his daughter reading some of the funnier episodes to him. He came in contact with the private side of his daughter, the things she never revealed to anyone, stating, “For me it was a revelation … I had no idea of the depth of her thoughts and feelings … She had kept all these feelings to herself”. He was touched by her strong desire to become an author, so he began to put things in motion in other to have it published.

Anne started her diary as a way to express her thoughts; in several entries she wrote that she will make sure no one has access to read it. She gave a candid description of her life, members of her family, her companions, as well as their situation, and in the process she realized that she wanted to publish fiction. She listened to a radio broadcast in March 1944, by Gerrit Bolkestein, who was an exiled member of the Dutch government, living in London – who stated that after the war, he would make a public record about the oppression of the Dutch under the German occupation. He talked about publishing diaries and letters, and Annie resolved to submit her work when it was time. With this in mind, she started to edit her writing, getting rid of some sections, and rewriting some parts to make them suitable for publication. She supplemented her original notebook with extra notebooks and sheets of paper. She used pseudonyms for the helpers and other members of her household. She referred to the van Pels as Hermann, Petronella, including Peter van Daan and she called Fritz Pfeffer Albert Dussell. She addressed all the entries in this edited version to “Kitty”, who was a fictional character from Joop ter Heul, a book by Cissy van Marxveldt, which she enjoyed reading. Her father used the original diary which he tagged “version A” and the edited version, tagged “version B”, to produce the first version to be published. He got rid of some parts, where Annie criticized her parents (particularly her mother), and those that talked about her growing sexuality. Though he used the true identities of the members of his family, he kept all the other pseudonyms.

Otto Frank transferred Anne’s diary to Romein-Verschoor a historian, who made several unsuccessful attempts to publish it. She then gave Jan Romein, her husband, who wrote an article on it, which he named “Kinderstem” meaning “A Child’s Voice” and it was published in the paper Het Parool on the 3rd of April 1946. He stated that the diary “stammered out in a child’s voice, embodies all the hideousness of fascism, more so than all the evidence at Nuremberg put together.” The attention of many publishers was caught by this article, and in 1947, they published the diary in the Netherlands titling it Het Achterhuis (The Annex), and they followed it up with five other printings by 1950.

They first published it in France and Germany in 1950, and it was first published in the UK after rejection from a lot of publishers in 1952. Its first publication in America titled “Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl,” received positive reviews. Though it was successful in Germany, France and the US, it didn’t attract any significant audience in the UK and was out of print by 1953. It recorded its highest success in Japan, where more than 100,000 copies of its first edition were sold and it received critical acclaim. Anne Frank was acknowledged in Japan as a significant cultural figure representing how the war destroyed the youth.

Pictures of Anne Frank

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Pictures of Anne Frank

Pictures of Anne Frank

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Anne Frank Quotes

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Anne Frank Quotes

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Anne Frank Quotes

Anne Frank Quotes

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